Thursday, 31 March 2011
Buddhism rejects all such views that deny the human strength and human capacity. Buddhism does not believe in a savior other than human being himself and it has entrusted the lordship own life to the person himself. Accordingly human being is able to act with free-will to achieve a certain aim. This idea is totally anti-deterministic. Where the determinism is accepted free-will is totally rejected. Therefore it is wrong to consider determinism as the theory of causality that is relevant to everything in the world. Western philosophers seem to have fallen into an idea like this. Yet according to Buddhism free-will is deny by the determinism (ñiyativAda) which the forms of a theory of causelessness (åhetuvAda). According to the Titthayatanasutta of AN creation theory (îssaranimmanavAda) determinism (ñiyatuvAda or PubbekatahetuvAda) and theory of causelessness (åhetuappaccayavAda) are forms of determinism against the ethics. Among the contemporary religious teachers of the Buddha Makkkaligosala held a determinism that falls into causeless theory.
According to his view everything in the world is pre-determined. In such a situation no causality function, when there is no causality in action there is no free-will. Buddhism being a human centered religion emphasizes free-will, causality and the human strength. With this Buddhism doesn’t ascribe a bestow any extra quality to humanity but the Buddha explained in reality the nature of humanity. Accordingly Buddhism emphasizes free-will in human life related to the following qualities.
1. åttakAra- things done one by oneself
2. PurisakAra- things done by person (leadership)
3. årambhadhAtu- element of beginning
4. ñikkhammadhAtu- element of continuation
5. ParakkamadhAtu- element of perceivation
6. ThAmadhAtu- element of established effect and passion
7. ThitidhAtu- element of form effect or holding.
8. üppakkamadhAtu- element of creativity.
According to the åttakArasutta of AN once a Brahmin came to the Buddha and said he’s holding the view that there are no things in this world done by oneself (attakAra) or done by others (parakAra). The Buddha replies as follows.
“µA’haM brAhmaNo evaM vadiM evaM diTThiM addasaM vA assosiM vA kathaM hi nAma sayaM abhikkamanto sayaM paTikkamanto evaM vakkhati, natthi attAkAre natthi purisakAreti.”
=I don’t want to see or hear the holder of such theory or view. When you are walking forward and backward now you can say there is no things done by oneself or others.
From this it is clear that Buddhism encourages people to work at their will. ßammA vAyama in the eightfold path viriya sambojjaGga among seven factors of enlightenment the faculty of effect in five faculties emphasizes this quality of Buddhism.
There are three forms of birth (attabhAva paTilAbhA) commonly accepted in Buddhism as well as many of the other Indian religions. They are:
1. Rupi catummahAbhUtiko kabalinkArAhArabhakkho ayaM oLArikaM attapaTilAbho – the life made of form and made of four great elements eating material food which is physical – sensual sphere (kAmabhava).
2. ®UpI manomayo sabbaGgapaccaGgI ahInindriyo ayaM manomayo attapaTilAbho – the life made of mental form with all limbs which is not without faculties – form sphere (rUpabhava).
3. årUpI saJJamayo ayaM arUpo attapaTilAbho – the life which is formless made of perception- formless sphere (arUpabhava).
They are given in brief again in the PoTThapAdasutta of DN as follows:
“Tayo me PoTThapAda attapaTilAbhA oLAriko attapaTilAbho, manomayo attapaTilAbho, arUpI attapaTilAbho”
= O my PoTThapAda! There are three acquisition of personality, acquisition of rough things, acquisition of mind made and acquisition non-form.
According to Buddhist analysis there are these three forms of life of them the physical form of life belongs to the sensual sphere. The form sphere has a subtle form of existence. In the formless sphere there is no a form such but that existence is made of perception yet those who have this type of form like brahmA in brahma world grasps for forms. They also take five aggregates to be essenceful. They also have the self-views, they too are subject to impermanence and unsatisfactoriness.
“Brahmaloko’pi kho bhikkhave anicco addhavo sakkAya pariyApanno”
Lectured on 01.03.2006
The existence of paJcakkhandha in any world proves the existence of grasping also. In the sensual pleasure we believe in a soul depending on grasping. There are rough and subtle levels of the form. In the development of insight both these levels of the forms are taken into consideration. Mental form is that taking subtle form into consideration. In the normal body the relationship between physical and mental factor is built depending on the experience of the world.
According to human factor in the personality is deeper than physical aspect. According to Buddhism a being can be analyzed interpreted or experienced on logical sense because the psychological aspect of life are more important than those physical. The term sutta is used in Buddhist philosophy taking both physical and psychological aspect into consideration. It really means the mental grasp of experience of five aggregates.
“®Upe kho ®Adha yo chando vA rAgo vA nandI vA taNhA tatra satto tatra visatto tasmA satto’ti vuccati”
=Any desire, passion, delight, or craving for form, Radha: when one is caught up (satta) there, tied up (visatta) there, one is said to be 'a being (satta).
In this manner physical and psychological factors in the beings personalities are interrelated interconnected and interwoven (laced).
Here the term consciousness (viJJANa) stands for the consciousness which is causally dependent and goes through the existences. It as a force connects phenomena and noumena (rUpa and nAma). In some places the Buddha says “due to consciousness name and form are exist, due to name and form consciousness exist” this consciousness stands for the life force behind the function of phenomena and noumena (viJJANapaccayaM nAmarUpa nAmarUpaM paccayaM viJJANaM).
It is important to know that how this factor is discussed in the µahAnidhanasutta of DN. The existence of nAma and rUpa depending on consciousness (viJJANa) is discussed between the Buddha and Ven. Ānanda in relation to conceiving of a child in the warm of mother.
1. If viJJANa (consciousness) is not joined to nAma and rUpa (name and form in worm name and form do not grow thee.
2. If the consciousness comes and goes out in new being his name and form do not grow.
3. If the consciousness comes to separate from the consciousness is not causing the growth of name and form.
4. When name and form are not supported by consciousness they do not produce birth decay and death.
From these factors it is clear that the relationship between name and form therefore it is very important for the prolonging of the circle of birth and death.
The ĀhArasutta of SN enumerates four kinds of food that is helpful for the life the being.
“CattAro bhikkhave AhArA, bhUtAnaM vA sattAnaM ThitiyA sambhavesinaM vA anuggahAya katame cattAro kabaliGkAro AhAro oLAriko vA sukhumo vA, phasso dutiyo, manosaJcetanA tatiyA, viJJANaM catutthaM”
From these foods number one and two are material and three and four are psychological. Those material foods are common to all the three spheres of existence.
From all these analysis we can know the nature of the relationship of physical phenomena and the depth of the psychological aspect. This is especially emphasis in Buddhist teaching because taking mind as soul is more serious than taking body as soul. The Buddha says if some one takes body as the soul then it is easy to get rid of the soul view. When one takes mind as the soul it is not easy to get rid of that soul view. This itself shows that the human mind is bigger than the human body. In that sense the most important aspect a human personality is not the mind but the body.
The teachings of certain religions like christanism, Islam and Hinduism are Theo-centric (centered around the god). But in Buddhism the teachings are anthropocentric (human centered). Therefore what the Buddha taught about the nature and destiny of the human being has come significant and practical in psychological and ethical sense. Buddhism is totally free from creation theory. It explained nature of life depending on causality. The Buddha uses the method of analysis in order to clarify to the truth related to human life. Before the Buddha human nature was understood mainly in relation to the soul which was believed to be between the human personalities. The first way the Buddha used to analyze the personality of human being was the analysis of name and form (nAma rUpa). When the being was understood with this analysis, the followers of the Buddha came to know that there is no a permanent soul.
The being means a relationship of mental and physical phenomena. In Buddhism the physical aspect is called rUpa and mental aspect is called nAma. Whenever the Buddha analyses the personality of human being more much emphasis was given for analysis mental aspect of human personality. Although there are these two aspects they are necessarily inter-connected and inter-related.
In the ñalakalApasutta of SN the Buddha says when two bundles of bamboos stand helping each other one can exist without another. In the same way physical aspect and mental aspect of human personality can not exist without each other. The nAmarUpa analysis occupied a very significant place in the Buddhist philosophy. That wise they came to further elaboration in the later åbhidhamma teachings. In which they are further analyzed with natural detail.
This analysis is seen in early Buddhism only in very simple way. The PaTiccasamuppAdavibhangasutta of SN defined nAmarUpa as follows:
“KatamaJca bhikkhave nAmarUpaM? vedanA, saJJA, cetanA, phasso, manasikAro idaM vuccati nAma cattAro mahAbhUtA catunnaJca mahAbhUtAnaM upAdAyarUpaM idaM vuccati rUpaM”
=O monks! What is the name and form? Here feeling, perception, volition, contact, ideation is called name. The four great elements of whatever the four great elements arises is here called form.
These factors cause the function of life.
When it came to åbhidhamma these numbers are further enumerated and elaborated, for example according to åbhidhamma there are four great forms (mahAbhUtarUpa and twenty four derived forms (upadAyarUpa).
ñAmarUpa are analyzed at different places in various ways. The analysis of five aggregates (paJcakkhandhavihbAga), the analysis of twelve faculties (dvAdasayatanavibhAga) and the analysis of eighteen (aTTharasadhAtuvibhAga) are three forms of analysis that are they development nAmarUpa.
All these five forms of analysis (nAmarUpa, paJcakkhandha, chadhAtu, dvAdasAyatana, aTTharasadhAtu) are different forms of analysis personality of the being. This shows the deepness and significance of human mind and also the fact that there is no soul personality. When person develops insight he naturally sees these natures.
“åyaM kho me kAyo rUpi cAtummahAbhUtiko, mAtApettikasambhavo, odanakummAsUpacayo, aniccucchAdana idaJca pana me viJJANaM etthasitaM ettha patibaddhaM”
=This my body is material, made up from four great elements, born of mother and father, fed on rice and gruel, impermanent, liable to be injured and abraded, broken and destroyed, and this is my consciousness which is bound to it and dependent on it.
This shows how name and form are conducive to the existence of life.
Human being realizes the nature of causality dependent existence when he observes hi life by this method of analysis. Life is the interaction among these elements for them. Therefore human being is responsible for himself no any other external force, god or creator is responsible for origin of function or the destiny of human life.
We observe the birth, function and nature of sensory knowledge in brief in the previous discussion. Here its relationship to the truth is to be observed. The portions of sensory knowledge are kept, stored in human consciousness by forms of memories. saJJAkkhadha (the aggregates of perception) is the pAli term for that store of memory and its unavoidable relationship to other aggregates is called saJJApAdAnakkhadha (the aggregates of grasping of perception).
In Buddhist discussion of sensory perception it is not limited only to five senses, but Buddhism includes the sixth sense named mana. There are two significances of, in the sense of mana. And in its function, in the human thought process are:
1. The sense organ is less-developed or matured in the beings in the beings other than humans and gods. Therefore in human thought process it plays a vital role.
2. The first five sense organs except the mana cover only the experiences of the sensual sphere (kAmadhAtu), to cover the ideas in form sphere (rUpadhAtu) and non-form sphere (arUpadhAtu) the function of mana is very important.
3. In the sense perception in all beings mind plays a significant role in co-coordinating them. Nor the subject of one’s sense organ become subject to another. Their relationship therefore is built by mind.
“PaJcimANi indriyAni nAnA visayAni nAnA gocarAni, na aJJamaJJassa gocaraM visayaM paccanubhonti, … indriyAnaM manopaTisaraNaM, mano ca nesaM gocaravisayaM paccanubhoti”
=The faculties are in various subjects and in various objects. They do not share objects of each others. Faculties are mind-helped. Mind shares their objects.
This shows the wideness and deepness of mind as a faculty. It is very much stronger and rich in capacity than the other sense organ.
The sensory knowledge means the knowledge received through senses, those are, eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. The objects of those senses are and through what we received are called sensory knowledge; the objects are as, form, sound, smell, taste, bodily contacts and mental object are connected to sensory organs and related to consciousness in the production of sensory knowledge. Sensory knowledge does not cover the knowledge about everything in universe. But they derive and build up knowledge of things in the world as they are related to the person. Further the knowledge derived in that way is edited by thoughts, ideas, and concepts of people. Therefore the ability of receiving correct knowledge in man is further made limited. Therefore the common worldling (pathujjana) does not receive a perfect knowledge about his environment his world.
If a person knows well as this is a form and this a sound etc, that is called vijAnana (being conscious).
“KiJca bhikkhave viJJAnaM vadetha, vijAnAtI’ti kho bhikkhave tasmA viJJAnanti vuccati”
(khajjanIyasutta, SN III)
That is not yet conceptualizes. The conceptualization of perceived consciousness is called ßaJjAnana (perception) that has been conceptualized.
“KiJca bhikkhave saJJaM vadetha, saJjAnAtI’ti kho bhikkhave tasmA saJJAti vuccati”
When the knowledge is conceptualized, that becomes personal and deformed in a sense. Therefore, often the idea in the men is deformed in the knowledge more than reality. Although sensory knowledge is essential for day-today life that is not perfectly helpful regarding the reality of world for they are conceptualized.
The sensory knowledge is not just derived from senses and their objects. Buddhism explained a third reason namely the attention of mind (tajjo samannAhAra). For the proper sensory knowledge these three factors are essential.
“åjjhattikaJceva cakkhuM aparibhinnaM hoti, bAhirA ca rUpA ApAthaM Agacchanti, tajjo ca samannAhAro hoti, evaM tajjassaviJJANabhAgassa pAtubhAro hoti”
=The eternal (organ) is not broken. External forms come to relevant spaces (of the organ). The psychological attention is present. Thus the relate consciousness is born.
The µadhupiNDikasutta of MN explains the process further:
“CakkhuJcAvuso paTicca rUpe ca uppajjati cakkhuviJJANaM taNNaM saGgati phasso phassapaccayA vedanA, yaM vedeti taM saJjAnAti, yaM saJjAnAti taM vitakketi, yaM vitakketi taM papaJceti, yaM papaJceti tato nidAnaM purisaM papaJca saJJA sankhA samudAcaranti atItAnAgatapaccuppannesu cakkhu viJJeyyesu rUpesu
=O friends! Depending on eye the eye consciousness is born in forms. By that proper contact of the three there is the contact. Depending on contact there is feeling. What feels that is known, what is known that is conceptualized, what is conceptualized that is idealized. What is idealized depending on that ideas, perceptions, and formation are made in forms, known through eye and belong to past, present and future.
The second explanation is the further elaboration of the statement made in µahAhatthipadopamasutta of the µajjhimanikAya. It shows the personal interference in the process of ideation. That is changed or encircled because the being is thinking being.
Buddhism teaches about a situation called papaJca which stands for the generation of individual ideas on the data received through senses. This is the complex turning point in function of mind of human. They make up the vision of man. It is a unique individualistic vision based on the nature of one’s consciousness. To understand the significant of this concept there are two other terms related to that. The nibbAna is called nippapaJca (the situation free from individual ideas) and the path leading to the nibbAna is called nippapaJcapatha (the road to the state of without individual ideas). The shows that papaJca is a very complex psychological situation which keep the man bound to the circle of life.
The µahAtaNhAsaMkhayasutta of MN further analyses the function of papaJca in prolonging the samsaric life. The worldling receives sensory data through five senses (paJcakAmasaJJA) – rUpa, sadda, gandha, rasa, phoTThaba, and becomes attached to them. If they are pleasurable, if they are unpleasurable, they are disliked and these memories are kept in the mind. There some other experiences that they fall into neither these groups which are called neutral. Then those experiences are conceptualized in within the mind to make one’s own ideas. This causes the future of one’s experience (bhava). These explanations show the Buddhist insight on sensory knowledge (indriyaJANa).
The ideas perceived by the man in kept in his memory and then time to time they are expressed to other men with the use of language. Such ideas are named as patibhAsa in Buddhism. They are expressed with words (vacana). Because patibhAsa does not represent the perfect knowledge of what one has and on the other hand words do not represent the truth in full as well. In other word the language is the mood of expression of human ideas. When the human ideas are not perfect the language which human production is not able to tell the truth as it is. Therefore Buddhism does not recognized language as the most appropriate instrument to convey the truth to others. Not only the human language is imperfect in conveying the truth, but it generates and spreads all the misconception among men.
Because the senses are very important to get new knowledge Buddhism teaches the development of senses (indriyabhAvanA). It begins with restrains of senses (indriyasamvara). The arahant is explained as one who with sense door closed (indriyesu guttadvAro). It does not mean not receiving any data through senses, but it stands for not generating new ideas (that are harmful based on sensory knowledge). The ßAmaJJAphalasutta of DN explains it as follows:
“îdha maharaja bhikkhu cakkhunA rUpaM disvA na nimittaggAhi hoti, nAnubyaJjanaggAhi,”
=O great king! Here the monks having seen the forms with eye do not behold it, he does not behold it other way.
Buddhism recommends cultivation or development of faculties to prevent them producing misconception and wrong ideas. Sensory knowledge is a valuable source of human knowledge. In Buddhism view, it is to be correctly guided and enriched. By that way only man can make a positive change in his fate. Even he might not try; the negative changes are commonly automatically take place in human fate. Due to the ignorance the man observe no situation. The Buddha having seen the function and the influence of human thought process recommends to be an observer or a modifier of it. That is the way to get the best of human ability to think.