Thursday, 31 March 2011

Inter-relatedness among Three Characteristics of Existence and its Universal Validity


The India religious thinker practices his religion with the emancipation some state or essence which is impermanent (nicca), happy (sukha) and with the permanent entity (attA).  With this emancipation some of those practisanor developed the perception of essencefuleness on factor of existence which are not essenceful. Some of them thought the happiness of trance to be with soul and to be of permanence and happiness. But the reality, the happiness of trance is not so. If some one develops such concept on things which are not so those concepts are false concepts (miccha sankappa). Buddhism is unique among India religions it works to make the human thinking from such false concept and guide to enlighten. Intelligent people realized on the reality of impermanence (aniccatA), unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) and soullessness (anattatA). 
These three characteristics are found in all the conditioned things (saMkhatadhamma). All that are impermanent is unsatisfactory (yadaniccaM taM dukkhaM). All unsatisfactory things are soulless (yaM dukkhaM tadAttA). What has no soul is not permanent. This means all things except nibbAna are subjected to these three characteristics. It shows the inter-relatedness among the three characteristics.

YadaniccaM taM dukkhaM, yaM dukkhaM tadAttA, yadanatta taM netaM mama, nesohamasmi nameso attAti sammapaJJAya diTThabbaM
                                                      (åjjhattAniccasutta, SN)
=whatever is impermanent that is unsatisfactory, whatever is unsatisfactory that is soulless and what is not soul is not mine that not am I and that is not my soul (in this manner things) should be seen with wisdom.  
All the aggregates elements should be viewed so and that knowledge of things with vision he is called (yathAbhUtaJANadassana). The vision of knowledge of seeing things as, they are.  
Once a follower of Jainism named Saccaka told the Buddha that he recognizes the aggregates form, feeling etc as the soul. Then the Buddha questioned him whether he can keep even one of them as he wants and whether he can prevent the change of them at his will. At the question of the Buddha Saccaka was answerless. Then the Buddha questioned Saccaka as follows. 

Buddha - †vaM kiM maJJasi åggivessana rUpaM niccaM vA aniccaM vAti? What        do you think O Aggivessana is the form impermanent or permanent?
SaccakaåniccaM bhante – impermanent venerable sir!
BuddhaYampanAniccaM dukkhaM vA sukkhaM vA – what is impermanent suffering or happy.
Saccaka - ∂ukkhaM bho Gotama – suffering, O venerable Gotama!
BuddhaYampaniccaM dukkhaM viparinAmadhammaM kallanutaM samanupassituM, etaM mama, esohamasi, eso me attA – what is impermanent suffering and subject to change is it suitable to take as this mine, this am I and this my soul.
Saccaka ñohidaM bho Gotama – this is no O Gotama.

In this manner all the five aggregates were questioned. Saccaka answered to the question of the Buddha were self-contradictory. To establish in reality based on understanding of the nature of three characteristic as they are the Buddha permitted him to answer as it is OK for him (yathA ta khamiya tathA naM byAkareyAsi). The Buddha’s way of questioning led Saccka quickly to realize the truth.  
Seeing the reality of three characteristics in relation to five aggregates is called insight (vipassana) in Buddhism. Self-view of pride (asmimAna) is based on the five aggregates of grasping it is recommended to develop the perception of impermanence (aniccasJJA) in order to uproot the self-view.
åniccasaJJA bhAvetabbA asmimAna sumugghatAya” [Meghiyasutta, Ud] 
This development is the beginning of the continuity of the practice in noble life. In the phenomena which are impermanent the perception of unsatisfactoriness should be developed. In the phenomena which are unsatisfactory the perception of soullessness should be developed. Then the perception of giving up (pahAnaJJA) and the perception of cessation (nirodhasaJJA) should be developed.
“… cha vijjabhAgIye dhamme uttariM bhAveyyAsi. Idha tvaM ∂Ighavu sabbasaMkhAresu aniccanupassi viharahi aniccedukkhasaJJi, dukkhe attasJJi, pahAnasaJJi, virAgasaJJi, nirodhasaJJi
(∂Ighavu upasakasutta, SN)
In this manner the knowledge three characteristics become conducive and practical for the attainment of liberation. These six-fold factors leading to knowledge cha vijjabhAgIyAdhammA are developed by developing three characteristics which is development of insight (vipassanabhAvana).  
Buddhism in this manner considered three characteristics should be all embracing the five aggregates are completely suffering.
 “®UpaJca hidaM µahAli ekantadukkhaM abhavissa, dukkhAnupatitaM dukkhAvakkantaM anavakkantaM sukhena nayidaM sattA rUpasmi sArajjeyyuM
=O Mahali! If the form is completely suffering, if it is in suffering and out of happiness this being should have not being in attachmentlity.
The Buddha says others five aggregates are also free from suffering as form. Then the Buddha says the other side of the picture also.
®UpaJca hidaM µahali ekantasukhaM abhavissa sukhAnupatitaM sukhAvakkantaM anavakkantaM dukkhena nayidaM sattA rUpasmi nibbindeyyuM
=O Mahali! This is not completely happy in happiness and free from suffering, it so these beings would not have been getting disgusted with the form.
In this manner although the aggregates are not utterly happy or suffering in the ultimate sense they are unsatisfactory because due to five characteristics the grasping of being disturb. From this we know inter-relatedness of three characteristics and them relationship to aggregates.
In Buddha the teaching of the five characteristics as it is applicable to the entire world. It is nit something invented by Buddhism but it is the discovery of the Buddha, the nature of things as they are. In other words the three signatas are the three universal properties of all existing things of the phenomena world. These as universal states give in the ∂hammapada, µaggvagga as follows.
ßabbe samkhArA aniccAti yadA paJJAya passati
atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyA  --- 277
=All conditional things are impermanent, when he sees this with wisdom.
Then he disgusted in suffering, this is the path to purity.

ßabbe samkhArA dukkhAti yadA paJJAya passati
atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyA  278
= All conditional things are unsatisfactory, when he sees with wisdom.
Then he disgusted in suffering, this is the path to purity.

ßabbe dhammA anattAti yadA paJJAya passati
Atha nibbindati dukkhe esa maggo visuddhiyA 279
=All conditional things are non-soul, when he sees with wisdom.
Then he disgusted in suffering, this is the path to purity.

These three characteristics are common to all the three forms of existences, namely: sensual sphere (kAmabhAva), form sphere (rUpabhAva) and non-form sphere (arUpabhAva). All the three worlds are subject to impermanence infirmness and self-view.
Brahmalokopi Avuso anicco addhuvo sakkAyaparipanno
Thus impermanence is a universal phenomenon as well as others two characteristics.

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