Thursday, 31 March 2011

Relationship between Name and Form


There are three forms of birth (attabhAva paTilAbhA) commonly accepted in Buddhism as well as many of the other Indian religions. They are:
1.   Rupi catummahAbhUtiko kabalinkArAhArabhakkho ayaM oLArikaM attapaTilAbho – the life made of form and made of four great elements eating material food which is physical – sensual sphere (kAmabhava).
2.   ®UpI manomayo sabbaGgapaccaGgI ahInindriyo ayaM manomayo attapaTilAbho the life made of mental form with all limbs which is not without faculties – form sphere (rUpabhava).
3.   årUpI saJJamayo ayaM arUpo attapaTilAbho the life which is formless made of perception- formless sphere (arUpabhava).

They are given in brief again in the PoTThapAdasutta of DN as follows:
      “Tayo me PoTThapAda attapaTilAbhA oLAriko attapaTilAbho, manomayo attapaTilAbho, arUpI attapaTilAbho
= O my PoTThapAda! There are three acquisition of personality, acquisition of rough things, acquisition of mind made and acquisition non-form.
      According to Buddhist analysis there are these three forms of life of them the physical form of life belongs to the sensual sphere. The form sphere has a subtle form of existence. In the formless sphere there is no a form such but that existence is made of perception yet those who have this type of form like brahmA in brahma world grasps for forms. They also take five aggregates to be essenceful. They also have the self-views, they too are subject to impermanence and unsatisfactoriness.
Brahmalokopi kho bhikkhave anicco addhavo sakkAya pariyApanno
                                                      (GilAnasutta, ßñ)

Lectured on 01.03.2006
      The existence of paJcakkhandha in any world proves the existence of grasping also. In the sensual pleasure we believe in a soul depending on grasping. There are rough and subtle levels of the form. In the development of insight both these levels of the forms are taken into consideration. Mental form is that taking subtle form into consideration. In the normal body the relationship between physical and mental factor is built depending on the experience of the world.

      According to human factor in the personality is deeper than physical aspect. According to Buddhism a being can be analyzed interpreted or experienced on logical sense because the psychological aspect of life are more important than those physical. The term sutta is used in Buddhist philosophy taking both physical and psychological aspect into consideration. It really means the mental grasp of experience of five aggregates.  
      ®Upe kho ®Adha yo chando vA rAgo vA nandI vA taNhA tatra satto tatra visatto tasmA sattoti vuccati
                                                                                            (ßattasutta, SN)
=Any desire, passion, delight, or craving for form, Radha: when one is caught up (satta) there, tied up (visatta) there, one is said to be 'a being (satta).

    In this manner physical and psychological factors in the beings personalities are interrelated interconnected and interwoven (laced).

      Here the term consciousness (viJJANa) stands for the consciousness which is causally dependent and goes through the existences. It as a force connects phenomena and noumena (rUpa and nAma). In some places the Buddha says “due to consciousness name and form are exist, due to name and form consciousness exist” this consciousness stands for the life force behind the function of phenomena and noumena (viJJANapaccayaM nAmarUpa nAmarUpaM paccayaM viJJANaM).

      It is important to know that how this factor is discussed in the µahAnidhanasutta of DN. The existence of nAma and rUpa depending on consciousness (viJJANa) is discussed between the Buddha and Ven. Ānanda in relation to conceiving of a child in the warm of mother.

1.   If viJJANa (consciousness) is not joined to nAma and rUpa (name and form in worm name and form do not grow thee.
2.   If the consciousness comes and goes out in new being his name and form do not grow.
3.   If the consciousness comes to separate from the consciousness is not causing the growth of name and form.
4.   When name and form are not supported by consciousness they do not produce birth decay and death.
From these factors it is clear that the relationship between name and form therefore it is very important for the prolonging of the circle of birth and death.

      The ĀhArasutta of SN enumerates four kinds of food that is helpful for the life the being.
      “CattAro bhikkhave AhArA, bhUtAnaM vA sattAnaM ThitiyA sambhavesinaM vA anuggahAya katame cattAro kabaliGkAro AhAro oLAriko vA sukhumo vA, phasso dutiyo, manosaJcetanA tatiyA, viJJANaM catutthaM
    From these foods number one and two are material and three and four are psychological. Those material foods are common to all the three spheres of existence.

      From all these analysis we can know the nature of the relationship of physical phenomena and the depth of the psychological aspect. This is especially emphasis in Buddhist teaching because taking mind as soul is more serious than taking body as soul. The Buddha says if some one takes body as the soul then it is easy to get rid of the soul view. When one takes mind as the soul it is not easy to get rid of that soul view. This itself shows that the human mind is bigger than the human body. In that sense the most important aspect a human personality is not the mind but the body.

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