Thursday, 31 March 2011

The Buddhist Teaching on Dukkha (Unsatisfactory or Suffering)


Buddhism does not agree the fact that suffering is always there with the being. Therefore Buddhism talks about various happiness to be experience by the man and examine whether what man called happiness is real happiness. In Buddhism the ultimate happiness in NibbAna which the extinction of becoming, it is not a personally enjoyed happiness but it is an impersonal happiness, freed from feeling. It is happiness about pacification to that all the other forms of happiness are not real happiness for they are subject to change incase impermanence. The temporally worldly happiness prior to the supra-mundane happiness is not taken into Buddhism as real happiness.

To achieve secular or spiritual happiness, mundane or supra-mundane happiness it is necessary for a person to have proper knowledge of light and world with a deep understanding in it. In the same way the person needs to have a clear philosophy of world with which he can analyze the things in a broader contacts with broader perceptive.

The concept of dukkha is given in Buddhism with the deep philosophical meaning. It is not mere the feeling of pain in body or mind but something about the reality which is there forever. To explain the Buddhist concept of dukkha, therefore term unsatisfactoriness sense to be more proper. The concept of Unsatsfactoriness is divided into three to represent suffering in its simple deeper level.

 “Tisso imA bhikkhave dukkhatA katamA tisso, dukkha dukkhatA, saMkhAra dukkhatA, vipariNAma dukkhatA.

1.   dukkha dukkha
2.   saMkhAra dukkha
3.   vipariNAma dukkha

1.  ∂ukkha dukkhatA - means the suffering or unsatisfactoriness faced with in day today life.
2.  ßaMkhAra dukkhatA - means the suffering or unsatisfactoriness related to formation in long samsaric existence.
3.      VipariNAma dukkhata - means the suffering related to change.

Normally the being thinks with concept “I am”. He sees and feels by justification of thinking so in day today life. Therefore he takes it as true. Based on that thinking he grasping that this is “my soul” (eso me attA). When we examine the causes and condition that makes up human personally. None of those causes or condition can be recognized as soul. Buddhist teaching of causality PatTccasamuppAda says the same. Even under cause relationship unsatisfactoriness itself is born and same ceased.

∂ukkhameva uppajjamanam uppajjati, nirujjamAna nirujjati.
                                                                     (KaccayAna Vacchagottasutta, SN)

There is nothing to be taken in the sense of soul.

Why Samsaric existence is called unsatisfactory. It is because the being is always subject to decay and death. A Buddha comes to the world to tell the world the nature of existence and to clarify the way out of it. Even the Buddha is promoted to look for Buddhahood by this factor. The following quotation occurs in the Gotamasutta of SN, as a thought occurred in the mind of Gotama before his enlightenment.

KicchaM vatAyaM loko Apnno jAyati ca jIyati ca mIyati ca cavati ca uppajjati ca. atha ca panimassa dukkhassa nissaraNaM nappajAnAti, jaramaraNassa. kudAssu nAma imassa dukkhassa nissaraNaM paJJAyissayati jaramaranassati.

=The worldling is entered into a difficulty. He is born, decays, ages, disappears and he is reborn. Then indeed he doesn’t know the way out of this suffering decay and death. When there will be a way out from this suffering decay and death.

From this thought we can understand why Buddhism emphasizes the way out of suffering. Naturally human beings are interesting in seeking for happiness because human beings don’t like suffering. Ascetic Siddhartha searched for everlasting happiness because he did not like suffering experience at general and deep levels.

In Buddhism, Samsara means the circle of unending births and deaths which is to be experienced with birth, death etc. Its first beginning can’t be observed, its first is out of reach of human sensory experience. 

ånamataggoyaM bhikkhave saMsAro pubbakaroti na paJJAyati. avijjanIvaraNAnaM sattAnaM taNhAsaM yojanAnaM sadhavataM saMsarataM dIgarattaM vo bhikkhave dukkhaM paccanabhUtam.
                                                                                    (Assutasutta, SN)
=O monks! The first beginning of the circle of existence untraceable among beings with ignorance and hindrance, craving and fetters journey and wandering. O minks! You have experienced the suffering for a long time.”

Lectured on 01.02.2006
Next the fact that how Samsaric suffering going should be understood, Buddhism teaches the way out of suffering and it analyses suffering as internal spiritual phenomena. Bu understanding the psychological function of the being properly one is able to know the birth and cessation of suffering.

The µahataNhAsankhayasutta of MN explains gradually how the suffering is emerging functioning and ceasing. A certain person having seen forms with eye diligent in pleasant forms gets unhappiness with unpleasant forms. He does not realize the nature and function of body and mind as they are. He doesn’t see freedom of mind (cetovimutti) and freedom of wisdom (paJJAvimutti) to be attained with the eradication of defilements. Thus he experiences happiness suffering and the neutral nature of feelings. He grasps that feeling that leads to becoming, birth, aging, decay, death, etc.
When one observes the nature of Samsaric functioning with wisdom the wise person thinks that he should be freed from this suffering. More he realizes the nature of suffering more he faith grows. Due to that confidential faith the diligent is born depending on the diligent rapture is born. The rapture leads to happiness. Happiness to concentration and concentration to knowledge vision of things as they are, there occurs the knowledge of the cessation of suffering (dukkhakhayaJAna).

In this manner Buddhism explains and analyses the suffering not for the being to be within it but for sitting oneself from suffering. The knowledge of suffering is conned to be s gift in Buddhism. It is because one who has that knowledge is the person who is capable of putting it ends to the suffering, the circle of birth and deaths. The function towards that is recommended in the Buddhist path of practice.  

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