Thursday, 31 March 2011

The Four Restraints in Jainism


Jainism in the Buddha’s time was founded by VardhamAna µahAvIra who was also a Khittiya, having given up his lay life and became an ascetic. He preached the religion called Jainism. Before the Buddha’s arising he was the most famous teacher among India religious teachers. It seems that he had a certain psychology development. According to Cittasutta of SN he had attained the first absorption. The ñiganthasutta of SN records the following episodes.
The house holder Citta one day visited µahAvIra and at that time Citta was an anAgAmin. µahAvIra questioned him “O house holder does the recluse Gotama says that there is concentration with avitakka (argument) and avicAra (without discrimination). Vitakka, vicAra means verbal conception; they are the psychological basses of words. They are ceased in the second absorption, the house holder Citta replied that himself has attained that concentration with the Buddha’s instruction.
This episode shows that µahAvIra had no a knowledge of second absorption where vitakka and vicAra come to cease. He had attained only first absorption. He had also some knowledge about brahma-world hence he preached the celibate life. µahAvIra emphasized homeless life and he rejected theism (the belief that this world with its beings is created by the supernormal power. i.e. BrahmA, God). He accepted the efficacy of kamma. He also was pubbekatahetuvAdin believing our present life is entire depends on our past kamma. According to his teaching karmic-cause is to be determined by experiencing its results. In other word being can not prevent the result of any of his past kamma, but they must undergo those consequences. And they also should be careful not to generate new karmic-causes. To do this µahAvIra recommends attakilamathAnuyoga (self-mortification).

Lectured on 19.09.2005
To prevent the birth of new kammas µahAvIra recommends four-fold restraints (catuyAmasaMvara). According to him individual soul accumulates kamma, because of the body. To make individual soul free from soul one has to finish the past kamma by torturing body. Termination of all past kammas is called Kevalatva in his religion. It is the summum bonum and the highest happiness attainable according to Jainism. The other side of Jain practice is that the prevention of the birth of new kamma. Therefore he recommended absolute non-violence (parama avihinsAvAda). The main different between Buddhist and Jain theory of kamma is that Buddhism regard mind as more important with regard to kamma. Jains do not accept the important of mind in generation kamma. According to term, whether there is violence or not each and every bodily action (including verbal) generation kamma. In order to prevent the birth of new kammas he recommended the four-fold restraints.

1. ßabbavArI vArito:
ßabbavAri vArito what is meant here is prevent the killing of beings. They consider trees and creepers as beings, and water as a huge source of living things. Therefore, to prevent all forms of cool water was recommended.

2. ßabbavArI yuto:
Being restraining every way especially from harming beings according to Jain practitioner cleans the road in front of his walk to prevent the killing in stepping. To be free from defilement is to be restricted and Jainism recommends extreme simplicity. The monks have very little or no possession at all. This is indicated while ßvetAmbra group of disciples wear only loin-cloth the ∂igambara group does not wear at all.

3. ßabbavAri vArito:
This means giving up for the eradication of all sins.

4. ßabbavArI phuto:
This means touching or experiencing liberation by eradicating all evils. They aim prevention of birth of new kamma. According to Jainism all kamma should eradicated by experiencing their result. Buddhism teaches kammakkaya. But contrary to Jainism Buddhism emphasizes the significant of volition of function of kamma. Therefore, has not to under go all the results of kamma. Therefore psychological and ethical basics founding Buddhism teachings are not given with same gravity in ending of the generation of psychological karmical seeds. 

No comments:

Post a Comment

Bookmark Digg Bookmark Bookmark Facebook Bookmark Reddit Bookmark StumbleUpon Bookmark Yahoo Bookmark Google Bookmark Technorati Bookmark Twitter Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...