Thursday, 31 March 2011

The Buddhist Teaching of Right View


The word right view is called sammA diTThi in pAli. It further means the basic wisdom that is necessary to begin the path of purification. Buddhist discourses emphasized that sammA diTThi is the first step of spiritual progress. The µahActtArisakesutta of MN introduces two forms of right views.

      “ßammA diTThimphaM bhikkhave dvayaM vadAmi. Athi bhikkhave sammAdiTThi sAsavA puJJabhAgIyA upadhivepakkhA. Athi bhikkhave sammAdiTTHi ariyA anAsavA lokuttamaggaGgA
= O monks! The right view is two-fold. O monks! There is right view with defilements bents towards merits and for the maintenance of aggregates. Then O monks! There is right view that is noble without defilements as the limbs of the path of supra-mundane.

      The first category of the right view is explained as the opposite of ten moral wrong views of materialists. This form right view therefore recognizes the validity of moral behaviour. In ways of such as: atthi diNNaM, atthi iTThaM, atthi mAtA, atthi pitA and so on.

      The second category of right view is explained in the following ways:
KathaJca bhikkhave sammAdiTThi ariyA anAsavA lokuttara maggaGgA, yA kho bhikkhave ariyacittassa anAsavacittassa aruyamaggasamaGgino ariyamaggaM bhAvayato paJJA, paJJindriyaM, paJJAbalaM dhammavijaya sambojjhaGgo sammAdiTThimaggaGgaM

=O monks! how is the right view that is noble, without defilements and the limbs of noble path of supra-mundane. O monks! that wisdom that faculty of wisdom, the power of wisdom, the factor of enlightenment of analyzing the dhamma of whom that noble mind, of whose mind is free from defilement of one endowed with noble path, of one who practice noble path. That is the limbs of path of right view.

      Net we find a very significant statement of the Buddha in ßammAdiTThipaccayasutta of AN as:
      “∂ve me bhikkhave paccayA sammAdiTThiyA uppAdAya katame dve? Parato ca ghoso, yonoso manasikAro
= O monks! There are two causes for the origin of right view. What are these two? What is learnt from other and mindfulness?

      The right view in Buddhism gives the meaning of understanding reality related to life. Through the analysis of phenomena if one can understand sullenness, and through causality the continuity of life that is mainly by these forms of sammAdiTThi. Even the Buddha says this kind of understanding can not expect from the person at the beginning. Therefore it is said in KItagirisutta of MN that ‘O monks! I don’t express approaching to knowledge at the very beginning (nAhaM bhikkhave Adikeneva aJJArAdhanaM vadAmi).

      In Buddhist path when one is progressing he attains some levels called diTThi. ∂iTThipaTilAbha, diTThisampanna, diTThippatta are some terms used to give two meaning. These words stand for the attainment of right view. The ßevitabbasevitabbasutta of MN says the usefulness of receiving right view in spiritual progress.

      “YathArUpaJca kho bhante diTTHipaTilAbhaM sevato akusalA dhammA parihAyanti, kusalA dhammA abhivaDDhanti, evarUpo diTThipaTilAbho sevitabbo
= O venerable sir! By the association of some right views, any unwholesome factors are reduced and wholesome factors are developed that view is to be associated.

    The KaccAnavacchagottasutta of SN explains the philosophical atmosphere of views. The logical arguments in the human language are concerned. Either they hold affirmative term like yes or negative term like no. in the philosophical sense they represent Eternalism and Nihilism.

      “∂ve yanissito kho ayaM KaccAna loko yebhuyyena atthitaJceva natthitaJca. lokasamudayaM ca kho KaccAna yatthA bhUtaM sammappaJJAya passato yA loke natthitA sA na hoti. lokanirodhaJca bhikkhave sammappaJJAya passato ya loke atthitA s Ana hoti

=O KaccAna! This world is two cornered (in view). Mostly as there is and there is not. O KaccAna! When the origin of the world is seen with right knowledge, the view of negative does not occur. When the cessation of suffering is seen with the right knowledge, the affirmative does not occur. Unsatisfactoriness itself emerges and disappears. If there is any other knowledge that is free from doubt and question that is sammAdiTThi (the right view).

      Accordingly one who comes to the true, true doctrine who sees it is endowed with view. Once when the person is established in it neither he accept nor he follows any wrong views such as Atma, brahmA or îZvara. Instead they use to see the things in their reality.

      The major things that occur with the sammAdiTThi are the giving up of self-view, self-pride, and self-craving. They lead the person to reduce his karmic production. Neither he generates new kammas for future and nor they will enrich available karmic forces. In this manner he is naturally led to the freedom from fetters and eventually his mind gets purify.

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