Thursday, 31 March 2011

Relationship between Suffering and Happiness


Happiness and suffering represent the feeling aspect of five aggregates or of the being. When feelings are grasped that is called aggregate of grasping of feelings. It shows how significance is feeling in existence of the being. I the Buddhist theory of causality feeling is explained as one cause. It is resulted by contact (phassapaccayA vedanA). That contact is six fold according to six-faculties, such as eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind. The feeling arises from these six-fold contact is given as three-fold:

1.   ßukha vedanA -  Happy feeling
2.   ∂ukha vedanA - Unhappy feeling
3.   üpekkha or adukkhamasukkha vedanA - neutral feeling
In normal mind (averaged mind) craving is born due to feelings. It leads grasping and formation and so on. This shows that feeling plays in important role in the life of the being. It is mostly because of feeling beings are led to live or crave for more. In the path of liberation the significance of feeling should be understood very clearly.

      Suffering and happiness in day today life are inter-related because they are two different degrees or levels of feeling. Whatever is departed on feeling whether it is happy or unhappy that is not consider to be permanent in Buddhist thought. The Buddha says therefore both happiness and unhappiness in worldly sense are unsatisfactory.

      “Tisso imA bhikkhave vedanA vuttAmayA sukhA vedanA, dukkhA vedanA, adukkhamadukkhA vedanA.
VuttaM kho panetaM mayA kiJci vedayitaM taM dukkhasminti
                                                                                   (Rahogatassasutta, SN)
      If any sort of happiness is worthy for they are impermanent (aniccaM sandhAya), for they are decaying (khayadhammataMsandhAya), for they are subject to death (vayadhammataM sandhAya), for they are subject to separation (virAgadhammataM sandhAya), for they are subject to cessation (viparinAmadhammataM sandhAya) they are declared as unsatisfactory by the Buddha.

Lectured on 08.02.2006
      Buddhism does not see the nature of total suffering in human life. The Buddha never says all worldly existence is totally suffering. But when we compare worldly happiness to nibbAna the mundane happiness looks to be low and mean. On the other hand Buddhism does not observe experience related to human life to be totally happy. The CUladukkhakkhandhakasutta of MN clearly says how the happiness related to five aggregates of grasping of becoming suffering. Yet this can not be realized by the person who does not see the truth as it is. Therefore, he thinks pleasure related to five senses to be enjoyable and happy. He considers such happiness to be true (iTThA) desirable (kantA) pleasant (manApa) attractive (piyarUpa) to be endowed with pleasure (kAmUpasanhitA) and a phenomena to be together with (rajaniyA). Depending on this analysis arises happiness and pleasantness that is pleasure of senses (îme paJcakAmaguNe paTicca uppajjati sukhaM somanassa ayaM kAmAnaM assAdo).

      From this fact it becomes clear that the Buddhism sees a kind of happiness at mundane level. Yet, it can not be kept under the control of person forever. Due to this impermanence nature unsatisfactoriness follows all the forms of mundane pleasure. If a person wants sensual pleasure from a certain work he should work hard for that. That bad result on the part of person is suffering in this world itself. There are many other causes which can deprive man from mundane happiness. Such as resultness of work, taking property to the government, destruction by the thieves, fire, etc. facing debate and conflict. And thereby warns and death, fighting, death for similar punishment, being engage in hat is not moral and thereby going to low destination. Without any relationship to these forms of disappointment mundane pleasure becomes impossible.

      Although this physical in reality is not, the average being makes it in his own way; the seeker for sensual pleasure is to be considered it to be essenceful.  In Buddhist view being happy in sensual pleasure is being like to unsatisfactoriness. If any one enjoys that pleasure he is not free from suffering.

Yo bhikkhave cakkhuM abhinandati, so dukkhaM abhinandati. Yo dukkhaM abhinandati aparimutto so dukkhasmAti vAdAmi
                                                        (åbhinandasutta, ßñ)
=O monks! He, who enjoys with eye, enjoys unsatisfactoriness, he who enjoys unsatisfactoriness I declare that is not free from unsatisfactoriness.

      Because of this nature Buddhism considers five sensual pleasures as some fact that can not be owned in their totality. It is because of this reason that should give up them. The Buddha says thus as recorded in ∂utiyanatumhAkasutta of SN.

YaM bhikkhave ne tumhAkaM taM pajahatha, taM vo pahInaM hitAya sukhAya bhavissati

=O monks! Give up what is not yours that given up will be for the happiness and wellbeing of you.

      The faculty of eye object is form etc. With the contact of object of eye feeling was produced and owing to that production of feeling, thereby do not belong to the person. Therefore they should be abandoned. Forming idea of happiness related to what is unsatisfactorines is forming suffering. The view that the man own is not mundane happiness if it is not mundane happiness can not be kept under man’s control. Man can not be authority over his own happiness.

      When we examine in the light of causality happiness and suffering are two sides of feelings. According to feeling of happiness and neutrality are born from contact.

“… sukhavedanIyaM bhikkhave phassaM paTicca uppajjati  - O monks! Because of contact happy feeling arises.
dukkhavedanIyaM bhikkhave phassaM paTicca uppajjati – O monks! Because of contact unsatisfactoriness arises.
“… adukkhamasukhavedanIyaM bhikkhave passaM paTicca uppajjati O monks! Because of contact neutral feeling arises.

            Fro which cause happiness and suffering are born from the same cause they come to be ceased. Buddhism encourages wise human being to be mindful in the experience of contact for it produces craving, grasping,becoming, decay, death etc constantly.                                                                            

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