Monday, 28 March 2011

Upasampada (Higher Ordination)


The higher code of morality introduced to the Buddhist order is called üpasampadA. It is called the higher morality (adhisIlasikkha). It is base for adhicittasikkha and ahipaJJasikkha. With the obtaining of the upsampadA that monk belongs to the bhikkhusaGgha and thereby he is bound with a large umber of doctrinal and disciplines.
There are eight ways of granting upasampadA

1.  Ehi bhikkhu upasampadA
2.  ßaraNAgamana upasampadA
3.  OvAda patiggahaNa upasampadA
4.  PaJha vyAkaraNa upasampadA
5.   Garu dhammapatiggahaNa upsampadA
6.  ∂Utena upsampadA
7.  åTThavAcikA upasampadA
8.   Ñattcatutthakamma upasampadA

The ways one and two were explained already. Ovadapatiggahana upasampada means the way of granting upasampada was the confidence grown by accepting the advices given by the Buddha. This was given for the first time to a Thera named Kassapa. The Panhavyakara upasampada was given to Ven. Sopaka when he answered the ten question put to him by the Buddha. TheragAthATThakathA and the catubhANavAraTThakathA say that those ten questions were kumArapaJhA (ten questions of the child). The ßamantapAsAdika says the ten questions were related to loathsomeness (dasa asubhanisaite paJhaM pucchi). The Garudamma patiggahana upasampadA means the one practise with Buddhist nun for the first time. When MahApajapati Gotami accepted the eight special principles that were declares as upasampadA. The ∂Utena upasampadA or giving upasampadA through a messenger was granted to courtesan ADDhakAsi. The upasampadA that is approved by both the bhikkhusaGgha and bhikkhunisaGgha is called åTThavAcika upasampadA.  The order that is uttered four times by bhikkhus in Jatthicatutthakamma is uttered four times with the bhikkhus by the nuns. Ñatticatutthakamma upasampadA means the method of granting upasampadA by uttering the order for four times by the bhikkhusaGgha

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