Monday, 28 March 2011

Ordination (PabbajjA) Recommended by Buddhism


The Buddha as a religious teacher was able to establish a significant development in India spiritual way of life for he avoided extremes theoretically and practically. To explain the past of human being and its resulting the present instead of Eternalism (ßassasatavAda) or creation theory and Nihilism (ücchedavAda) the Buddha used the theory of causality. The soul theory was refuted with three characteristics (TilakkhaNa) beginning with impermanence etc. middle path (µajjhimapaTipadA) with insight meditation (ñipassanabhAvanA) was taught instead of self – indulgence and self-mortification, based on these fundamental teachings of the Buddhism introduced a more practically way of religious monastic life. The pre-buddhist recluses were unable to exceed the neither eight attainments neighter perception nor non-perception (ñevasaJJAnAsaJJAyatana). Going further this step Buddhist practice puts further liberation in four steps. The CulasIhanAdasutta of MN says the follow.
            îdheva bhikkhave samaNo, idha dutiyo samaNo, idha tatiyo samaNo, idha catuttho samaNo. SuJJA parappavAdA saamaNehi aJJehite, evameva bhikkhave sammA sIhanAdaM nadatha
 = “O monks! Here itself is the first recluse (Sotapanna), here is the second recluse (ßakudagAmi), here is the third recluse (ånagAmi), and here is the fourth recluse (Arahant). The other theories are empty with other samaNas. In this way O monks! you should make the lions roar”

These words of the Buddha clearly show why the Buddhist way of ordination is unique among other. Any order is which you do not find the samaNas of four paths are empty according to the Buddha. So the way of reclueseship is not meaningful in other orders.

The same sutta goes on explaining the Buddha’s standpoint further. Accordingly there are two forms of views. 

1.  BhavadiTThi = Views related to existence.
2.  VidhavadiTThi =Views related to non-existence.

Those samaNas who are the allies of one theory are the opponent of the other theory. When one is attached to certain theory certainly he is unable to see the good side (assAda) bad side (Adinava) and renunciation (nissaraNa).Therefore those recluses are not free from rAga (attachment), dosa (anger) and moha (stupidity). So they do not develop insight instead of they develop craving (taNhA) and grasping (üpadAna). Accordingly they are not free from birth, decay, death etc-and suffering.
       The ∂hammacetiyasutta of MN says that how the other samaNas agreed the point put forward by the Buddha (See 2.4.3.King Kosala)

The ordination recommended by Buddhism because connected to individual life he decides to become a monk after understanding the doctrine and being pleased to the teacher. When such is the understanding of a person he thinks in the following way.

ßambAdhoyaM gharAvAso rajo patho abbhokAsova pabbajjA…”
                                                                                             (SamaJJaphalasutta, DN)
= “This householder life is full of obstacle and of dust of defilements. Ordination is like open sky”
Then he becomes a monk. In becoming a monk one gives up the appearance of laymen. By given up hair and beard and wearing with saffron robe. Then he gives up whole wealth big or small opens or closed (bhUmigatana vehAsagataJca). He gives up all the relatives thus and he comes to homeless life. In the homeless life he observes the precepts of PAtimokkha (pAtmokkhasaMvarasaMvuto). Then he leads ethical (AcAragocArasampaNNo). He sees danger even in a small mistake (anumattesu vajjesu bhayadassAvi). He observes precepts (sikkhati sikkhapadesu). He lives with wholesome deeds and thought (kusalasahagatena kAyena vAcAya manasA viharati). He disciplines in faculties (indreyesu guttadvAro hoti). He knows the limits of food (BojanamhimattaJJu). He is mindful (ßampajaJJo) and he is contented (santuTThi).

These characteristics show the nature of change that was made in monastic life with teaching of the Buddha. It is not just one of the Indian ways of religious. But it has given up the mistakes of contemporary religious life and has developed and theory and practice of a religious way of life which was ideal all other society. The Buddha often addressed his followers with term of bhukkhave which a term in pre-Buddhist religious.

Once, the Buddha explained the difference of Buddhist bhikkhus from other bhikkhus as given in the Bhikkhakasutta of SN. Once a Brahmin named Bhikkhaka met the Buddha and asked the question. ‘O Gotama! I begged for food, you too do the same what’s our difference?’’
åhampi kho bho ©otama bhikkhako, bhavampi bhikkhako idho no kiM nAnAkaraNaM ’’
Then the Buddha gave the following answers

ña tena bhikkhako hoti yAvatA bhikkhate pare.
vissaM dhmmaM samadAya bhikkhu hoti  na  tAvatA.

= “One does not become a bhikkhu by mere begging food. When one wanders with the unwholesome by that he is not a bhikkhu”.   

Yodha puJJaM ca pApaJca bAhitvA brAhmacariya vA.
saGkhAya loke carati save bhikkhUti vuccati ’’

The one who has given up merit as a sin in this world and observes celibacy with pure mind Indeed he is called a bhikkhu’’

Buddhism dose not agree with the dictionary meaning of bhikkhu (BhikkhatI’ti bhikkhu =bhikkhu is called because he begs)
Self–mortification was one of the strongest practices among bhikkhus of other faiths contemporary and before to the Buddha. The Buddha did not recommend fanatic practices even when the requests were made to do so. µahAtaNhAsaMkhAyasutta of MN explains the nature of the Buddhist monk in the following way.

ßeyyathApi nAma pakkhi sakuNo yena yenevadeti sapattabharova deti, evameva bhikkhu santuTTho hoti kAyaparihAriyena cIvarena kucchiparihAriyena piNDapANena yena yeneva deti samAdAyeva deti

= “Just as a bird flies with only the weight of wings in the same way a monk is happy with robes for the use of the body food for the use of hunger as a bird takes its wings wherever it goes”.

The Buddhist concept of ordination was formulated in a practical way so if is connected to the personal life, both with self mortification (attakilamathanuyoga) and self indulgence (kAmasukhalikanuyoga) there was a kind of unnatural practice.  The Buddhist way of ordination was practically possible and naturally following forwards emancipation.   According to the OghataranNasutta of SN the following conversation occurs between a certain god and the Buddha. 

DevatA: Kathannu tvaM Marisa oghamatarIti  (O great Man! How did you cross the     stream?)
The Buddha: åppatiTThaM kvAhaM Avuso anAyUhaM oghamatariM (O friend! I crossed the stream without staying and bothering).

In the next part of the conversation the Buddha clarified what he meant by his answer. He says “If I stayed I could have been drowned. If I bothered for much I could have lost the achievement. So without staying and bothering I crossed the flood (stream).
This shows the extreme free characteristic of the Buddhist path of practice.

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