Monday, 28 March 2011

The Performance of Disciplinary Acts (sanghakamma) and the Significance of Legal Points (adhikaraNasamtha


The community of Buddhist monks as an ordained group of people who have spiritual advancement as the objective of life and they were instructed to work with unity and to maintain it through out their lives. Therefore monks are not individual who have lives of their own but they are members of community and their activities are responsible for the whole community. If a monk does a mistake that blame comes to the whole community. Therefore the Buddha introduces rules which applied to entire community. Therefore the unity of community has been stressed even in the life of monks and nuns with related to all the minor and major activities.

In the disciplinary performances of the community they are done in such a way thatb the unity of sangha is preserved and strengthened. The community has common activities where participation is highlighted.

1.   The ecclesiastical activity of his or her ordination  (upasampadakamma)
2.   The ecclesiastical activity of entrusting kathina-robe (kathina pavAranAkamma)
3.   The ecclesiastical activity of probation, observance and training(parivAsa mAnatta and    abbhAnakamm)
4.   The ecclesiastical of recollecting (paTisAraniyakamma)
5.   The ecclesiastical of strong advice (tajjinIyakamma)
6.   The ecclesiastical activity of guidance (nissayakamma)
7.   The ecclesiastical activity of expiation (pabAjaniyakamma)

All these activities are performed in order to maintain and keep the community in unity. Under these disciplinary acts there is no a ruler and rule. The community itself rules the community.
For good maintain of community the Buddha has shown four kinds of sanghakamma as recorded in µahAvagapAli.

      1. ådhammena vagga kamma (the ecclesiastical acts which are unrighteous and                   cause schism in the community.)
       2. ådhammena samgga kamma (the ecclesiastical acts unrighteous but cause  schism)
      3. ∂hammena vagga kamma (the ecclesiastical acts of righteous bit not cause            shism)
         4.  Dhammena samagga kamma (the ecclesiastical acts which are righteous and cause co-existence).

From the four the first three are not recommended but the last one is recommended and encourages doing of sanghakamma than what have mentioned the above three.

If there any problems regarding disciplinary rules there are four bases of sitting down that matter (adhikarana).

1.  VivAdAdhikaraNa (if the matter is under consideration and if it is a disputable one it is called vivAdAdhikaraNa)
2.  ånuvAdAdhikaraNa (it the matter is about violating morality (sIla) bahaviour (AcAra) view (diTThi) and livelihood (AjIva) that is called the anuvAdAdhikaraNa).
3.   ĀpattAdhikaraNa (if the matter is related to purification from the offence (Apati) that is called ApattAdhikaraNa)
4.  KiccAdhikaraNa (it the matter is to be settled an ecclesiastical acts that is called kiccAdhikaraNa)

There are four vinayakamma that are come under kiccAdhikaraNa.

†attha katamaM kiccAdhikaraNa, yAsanghassa kiccayatA karaNiyatA apalokanakammaM JattikamaM JattidutiyakamaM JatticatutthakammaM

1.  åpalokanakamma :- this means requiring the sangha who gathered in the chapter-house to perform ecclesiastical acts. The agreement of all members is taken and the matter is announced to the community three times.

2.  Ñattikamma:- this means the declaring the matter in public in present of the community. It this step it is said once by the approval of the sangha and the completion of the activities are accepted. A monk who is erudite (vyatto) and capable (paTibalo) properly will announce in clear pronunciation the following sentence.

ßunAtu me sangho yadi saGghassa pattikallaM saGgho uposathaM kareyya pAtimokkhaM uddiseyya

  = May the community listen to me, the community may do ecclesiastical activities and may recite the disciplinary code in the approaching time.

3. Ñattidutiyakama:- In this step the matter is announce once and the related vinaya rule is declared.

4. Ñatticatutthakamma:- this means announcing the matter once and declaring the related disciplinary rules for the three times. With the four declarations it the community is remained silence it is understood that the vinaya kamma is done.

To settle the matter related to the above mentioned four adhikaranas senven methods are recommended. They are called seven points of legal appeasement (sattAdhikaraNasamatha).

1. ßmmukhA vinaya:- this means face to face meeting. This is to be accomplished four factors and should be completed.

1.   ßaGghasammukhatA – the participation of the necessary members of the sangha to settle the matter.
2.   DhammasammukhatA – availability of a true accusation on a monk
3.   VinayasammukhatA – settlement of the matter of the discipline
4.   PuggalasammukhatA – participation of both of the accusation (cadaka) and accused (cUdika)

2. ßati vinaya :- this means settling down an accusation of the pAracika or saNghadisesa against an arahant by the sangha on the request of the same arahant. The baseless accusation should be rejected and that matter is settled. No more accuse the same arahent again.

3. åmulha vinaya :- by this matter the settlements are made on monk who is accused for his wrong behaviour when he is not in mental health. After returning the mental health if some body accused him for the mistakes done he can ask the community to set him free from the accusation. Since then he will not be liable for such accusation and they will be valid.  

4. PaTiJJAtakaraNa :- the accused can be punished till he accepts the mistake. This means settling down the matter after accepting of the mistake by the wrong doer. If a monk commits a mistake he should revealed it and promised not to do the same again. If he commits a sanghadisesa misdeed he needs to under go probation and this acceptance of the wrong.

5. Yebhuyyesika :-  this means a settlement made by the vote of majority who came to hold the true dhamma when the holder of incorrect dhamma have created  disciplinary method. There the holder of true dhamma (dhammavAdi) declared the settlement in favour of the true doctrine.

6. †assapApiyyasika :- when a monk is conductively has declared to have done a misdeed and if his monk hood is still not polluted the opportunity has given to him is to purify himself, he is called tassapApiyyasika. If the monk hood is polluted the settlement is to be sent away from the monk hood.

7. †ivatthUraka :- if a mistake is utterly completed in such a way that the settlement can not be brought. In such an occasion it is abandoned or considered as a heap of dirt covered with grass and etcetera. If it is pArajika or saGghadisesa it is impossible to bring settlement.  

These seven methods of settlement represent legal procedure adopted to settle down the disciplinary matter that would arise within the community. They are very significant because that they are used in solving a disciplinary matter.

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